Cross-sectional and prospective associations between physical activity, body mass index and waist circumference in children and adolescents
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionDalene, K. E., Anderssen, S. A., Andersen, L. B., Steene-Johannessen, J., Ekelund, U., Hansen, B. H., & Kolle, E. (2017). Cross-sectional and prospective associations between physical activity, body mass index and waist circumference in children and adolescents. Obesity Science & Practice, 3(3), 249-257. 10.1002/osp4.114
Objective: To study the cross-sectional and prospective associations between physical activity (PA) of different intensities, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents using isotemporal substitution modelling. Methods: Physical activity (accelerometry), BMI and WC were assessed in 6- (n = 970), 9- (n = 2,423) and 15-year-olds (n = 1,544) in 2005/2006 and 2011/2012. Participants aged 9 years in 2005/2006 were followed prospectively to 2011/12 (age 15). Associations between PA of different intensities (light, moderate and vigorous), BMI and WC were examined using isotemporal substitution models. Results: Substituting 10 min per day of sedentary time with light PA was associated with higher WC (0.17 to 0.29 cm, p ≤ 0.003)) in all age groups. Substituting 10 min per day of sedentary time with moderate PA was associated with lower WC in 6- and 9-year-olds (−0.32 to −0.47 cm, p ≤ 0.013)). Substituting 10 min per day of sedentary time with vigorous PA was associated with lower WC in 9- and 15-year-olds (−1.08 to −1.79 cm, p ≤ 0.015)). Associations were similar with BMI as the outcome. In prospective analyses, substituting sedentary time with light, moderate or vigorous PA at age 9 was not associated with BMI or WC at age 15. Conclusion: Substituting sedentary time with moderate PA appears favourably associated with adiposity in children, whereas vigorous PA may be required in adolescents. Cross-sectional associations were not replicated in prospective analyses.