Multimodal Asynchronous Kalman Filter for monitoring unstable rock slopes
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionGeomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk. 2023, 14 (1), . 10.1080/19475705.2023.2272575
Unstable rock slopes pose a hazard to inhabitants and infrastructure in their vicinity, necessitating advanced monitoring methodologies for timely risk assessment and mitigation. Recent geotechnical monitoring techniques often rely on sensor data fusion to enhance forecasting for imminent failures. Our investigation extends beyond a single sensor type to data fusion for heterogeneous sensor networks using a Multimodal Asynchronous Kalman Filter. We illustrate the application of the proposed method on a case study data set consisting of data from an on-site sensor network enriched by remote sensing data. Employing a Multimodal Asynchronous Kalman Filter, we capitalise on the distinct resolutions inherent in each sensor input. The outcome was a combined dataset with a high spatiotemporal resolution. Our approach facilitates the estimation of essential physical attributes for monitored objects, encompassing translation, rotation, velocities and accelerations. The case study site was an unstable rock section of ca. 50.000 m3 in Aurland, Norway, which collapsed as a multi-stage failure in July 2023. Our method can be transposed to various sites with distinct sensor networks, enhancing state estimations for objects on unstable rock slopes. These estimations can significantly improve applications such as risk assessment and robust early-warning systems, enhancing predictions of critical failure points.