Cystatin B, cathepsin L and D related to surrogate markers for cardiovascular disease in children
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionPLoS ONE. 2017, 12:e0187494 (11), 1-13. 10.1371/journal.pone.0187494
Objective: This study investigated potential associations between novel biomarkers for cardiovascular disease and other surrogate markers for health. Methods: Community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8–11 years. Total fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total body fat was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial size (LA) and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for cystatin B, cathepsin L and cathepsin D. Results: Partial correlations between cystatin B versus lnTBF, lnBF%, lnAFM, AFM/TBF, VO2PEAK and PP were; r = 0.38, 0.36, 0.38, 0.29, -0.25 and 0.25, P = 0.001 or less for all. Weaker predominantly non-significant correlations were found for cathepsin L, whereas cathepsin D was not related to any surrogate markers for health. No significant correlations were found between biomarkers and change in body fat over 2 years. Conclusion: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that surrogate markers for cardiovascular disease such as total fat mass, percent body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, maximal oxygen uptake and pulse pressure were all associated with cystatin B. This was not found for cathepsin L or cathepsin D.